The contemporary society is very different from the previous ones, but sign these differences a discontinuity between the contemporary one and the previous societies, or are the changes, although deep, contained into the same line of development? And so, mark the contemporary Western democracies a discontinuity with the totalitarianism of the last century, or are them different in the proceedings but not in purposes? In other words, live we really in a post-ideological era or not? And whether not, which is the form of the current ideology and its framework? Trying to answer to these issues, that are essentially a question of “power”, is useful delineate a possible theory of the social transition and analyze if changes are essential or just formal – a sort of upgrade of the domination of man by man and by nature. Developing this reasoning will be taken in consideration, integrating each other, the political theory and the moral philosophy of Th.-W. Adorno, M. Foucault, J. Habermas, M. Horkheimer, H. Marcuse, A. Negri, P.P. Pasolini, in order to disclose a critical way for observing reality and its main phenomena.